Investigation of COVID-19 Vulnerability concerning Built Environment in the Case of Ghazni City, Afghanistan
The built environment exhibits a strong connection to novel diseases and viruses. Diseases have been hugely influenced in shaping cities. Nonetheless, now cities are on the front lines of the COVID-19 crisis. However, the impact of COVID-19 has, so far, been geographically and socially diverse; cities with a high concentration of urban poor and deep inequalities are potentially more vulnerable than those that are better resourced, less crowded, and more inclusive. Hence, Afghanistan, where cities have been recognized with a high concentration of urban poor and inequalities, is not exempt. Ghazni city, the capital of Ghazni province in Afghanistan, is also affected where people suffer lack of adequate infrastructure, drainage systems, and solid waste management. For residents of Ghazi City, those who live in a crowded and informal settlement and lack the proper shelter and housing, such as quarantines, staying indoors, and self-isolating, were very high challenges. Therefore, this research aims to evaluate the vulnerability of Ghazni City residents during the COVID-19 pandemic and quarantine. To reach the aim of this research, survey questionnaires have been used as an instrument for data collection to have a deep understanding of the level of access to basic services and facilities during quarantine. As well as to know whether the absence of those basic services leads to what kinds of challenges during home staying. However, the finding of this research indicates that staying home is a challenge for most of the residents. Besides, this home staying posed another problem for residents, which is the loss in income. On the other hand, almost half of the residents rent houses and shelters. Then, they were forced to leave their homes due to their inability to pay the rent.