The following policies apply to all journals published by Al-Kindi Center for Research and Development. Please read these policies in full before submitting your article, to ensure you’ve correctly followed all the requirements.

Peer Review Process

The Journal of Business and Management Studies (JBMS) is committed to maintaining the highest standards of scholarly publishing through a rigorous and transparent peer review process. This process plays a pivotal role in ensuring the quality, credibility, and reliability of the research articles published in the journal.

Manuscript Submission and Initial Screening
Authors submit their manuscripts to JBMS through an online submission system. Upon receipt, the editorial team conducts an initial screening to ensure that the submission aligns with the journal's scope and guidelines. This preliminary assessment involves checking for adherence to formatting requirements, ethical considerations, and basic suitability for the journal.

Assignment to Peer Reviewers
Manuscripts that pass the initial screening are assigned to expert peer reviewers with relevant expertise in the field. JBMS follows a double-blind peer review model, ensuring both the anonymity of authors and reviewers, fostering unbiased evaluations.

Peer Review Evaluation Criteria
Peer reviewers assess manuscripts based on various criteria, including the significance of the research question, methodological soundness, clarity of presentation, originality, and contribution to the existing body of knowledge. Reviewers also evaluate ethical considerations, ensuring research integrity and compliance with academic standards.

Peer Reviewer Feedback and Recommendations
Reviewers provide detailed feedback to authors, offering constructive criticism and suggestions for improvement. They may recommend acceptance, minor revisions, major revisions, or rejection based on the manuscript's quality and alignment with the journal's standards. The peer review process is a collaborative dialogue between authors and reviewers, promoting scholarly discourse.

Author Revisions and Resubmission
Authors are given the opportunity to address reviewers' comments and revise their manuscripts accordingly. The revised submissions undergo a secondary review to ensure that the suggested changes have been appropriately incorporated. This iterative process continues until the manuscript meets the journal's standards for publication.

Editorial Decision Making
The editor-in-chief, in consultation with the editorial board, makes the final decision regarding the acceptance or rejection of a manuscript. This decision is based on the comprehensive evaluation provided by peer reviewers, considering the overall quality, significance, and contribution of the research.

Post-Acceptance Editing and Production
Upon acceptance, manuscripts undergo final editing and formatting to ensure consistency and adherence to the journal's style. The production team works closely with authors to finalize the publication-ready version before the article is published online.

Continuous Improvement and Feedback Loop
JBMS is committed to continuous improvement in its peer review process. Feedback from authors and reviewers is actively sought to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the review system, contributing to the overall quality of the journal's publications.

Complaints Policy
The journal strives to deal with and resolve all complaints as soon as possible. The procedures followed by the journal to handle and resolve complaints aim to be fair for authors filing complaints and for those being complained about.

Appeals against editorial decisions
In case an author would like to challenge an editorial decision, he or she should contact the Editor-in-Chief of the journal. After the appeal is made by the author, the Editor-in-Chief will review the manuscript, peer reviewers' comments and reach a decision for accepting or rejecting the manuscript. If required, the Editor-in-Chief may send the manuscript to new referees for peer review. The Editor-in-Chief's decision is final in such cases. All submitted complaints will be acknowledged within two working days.

Plagiarism Policy

Al-Kindi Center for Research and Development strives to maintain academic integrity in publishing. All manuscripts submitted to the journal will be screened for plagiarism by the plagiarism checker “Turnitin” at the following points in time:
1. Upon receipt of the submission
2. When the author(s) submits the finalized manuscript after peer review
A manuscript will be rejected immediately if considered by the editorial office to be plagiarized or self-plagiarized.

A report of plagiarism will be handled as follows:
1. The complainant contacts the editorial office of the journal in which the published article suspected of plagiarism appeared.
2. The complainant indicates which sections have been plagiarzed by clearly referring to both the original and suspected articles.
3. The editorial office conducts an investigation, during which time the editor of the journal and the corresponding author(s) of the suspected article will be in contact.
4. The corresponding author(s) will be asked to provide an explanation.
5. If the author(s) of the suspected article accepts the complaint of plagiarism, an erratum or retraction is necessary to remedy the situation. However, there may still be a disagreement concerning the wording of the description.
6. In the case of nonresponse within the stipulated time or an unsatisfactory explanation, the article may be permanently retracted.

Retraction Policy

The journal strongly believes in maintaining and protecting the integrity of the academic record. Manuscripts formally published in the journal are considered as the “Version of Record”. Very rarely, when the scientific information in a manuscript is significantly undermined, it becomes obligatory for the journal to publish corrections to, or retractions of manuscripts published on the journal website, at the discretion of the editor-in-chief.
Article Corrections Contributors are encouraged to report errors related to the accuracy of published information in their manuscripts. Errors that impact the manuscript considerably will be considered only. Corrections are made at the editor-in-chief’s discretion. The correction procedure is based on the publication stage of the manuscript. Corrections will be published under corrections and addendum in an upcoming issue of the journal.
Article Retractions The manuscript published in the journal may be retracted due to scientific misconduct in some circumstances such as multiple submissions, bogus claims of authorship, fraudulent use of data or plagiarism. Concerned authors are required to submit a signed statement form to the editorial office before a manuscript can be retracted. The retractions are decided on a case by case basis by the editor in consultation with the authors and the reviewers of the manuscript. A retraction notice will be published and linked to the original manuscript being corrected and a link to the retraction page will be placed on the article published earlier.
Article Removal In extremely exceptional circumstances, it may be mandatory to remove the published manuscript from the journal website. This may happen if the manuscript is found to be defamatory or infringing on other’s legal rights leading to a court order. Under such circumstances, the whole manuscript will be removed and replaced with a screen stating that the manuscript has been removed due to legal reasons.
Article Replacement If the manuscript is found to include inaccurate data which may pose a serious health risk if acted upon by others, the authors of the original manuscript may wish to retract the manuscript and replace it with a corrected version. In this case, the above procedures for retraction will be followed with the difference that the manuscript retraction notice will contain a link to the corrected manuscript together with a history of the document.
Article Withdrawal The manuscript can be withdrawn by the author(s) or the publisher. The manuscript can be withdrawn at any time before it is officially published online. If the authors request withdrawal of their manuscript, a signed withdrawal request letter will be required to reach to the editorial office prior to the withdrawal of the manuscript. The publisher can withdraw the manuscript if it is found to violate the ethical publishing guidelines of the journal such as plagiarism, duplicate publication, multiple submission, fraudulent use of data or bogus claims of authorship. In such a case, the PDF version of the manuscript will be removed and replaced by a note that the manuscript has been withdrawn formally.

Conflict of Interest and Competing Interests

Conflict of interest is a situation in which financial or other personal interests are likely to make professional judgment and objectivity bias and untrustworthy.
- Editors and editorial board members will not use unpublished information disclosed in a submitted manuscript for their own research purposes without the authors’ explicit written consent. Privileged information or ideas obtained by editors as a result of handling the manuscript will be kept confidential and not used for their personal advantage. Editors will recuse themselves from considering manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships/connections with any of the authors, companies or institutions connected to the papers; instead, they will ask another member of the editorial board to handle the manuscript.
- Editors and editorial board members will not use unpublished information disclosed in a submitted manuscript for their own research purposes without the authors’ explicit written consent. Privileged information or ideas obtained by editors as a result of handling the manuscript will be kept confidential and not used for their personal advantage. Editors will recuse themselves from considering manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships/connections with any of the authors, companies or institutions connected to the papers; instead, they will ask another member of the editorial board to handle the manuscript.
- Authors should—at the earliest stage possible (generally by submitting a disclosure form at the time of submission and including a statement in the manuscript)—disclose any conflicts of interest that might be construed to influence the results or their interpretation in the manuscript. Examples of potential conflicts of interest that should be disclosed include financial ones such as honoraria, educational grants or other funding, participation in speakers’ bureaus, membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest, and paid expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements, as well as non-financial ones such as personal or professional relationships, affiliations, knowledge or beliefs in the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript. All sources of financial support for the work should be disclosed (including the grant number or other reference number if any).


The data and information of individuals (e.g., information obtained through a doctor–patient relationship) must be handled with the highest levels of confidence and discretion. It is therefore almost always necessary for authors to obtain written informed consent from any patients described in case reports and from those who are the subject of photographs. However, a report may be published without explicit consent if it meets all three of the following conditions: it is of great significance to public health (or is important in some other way); consent would be unusually difficult to obtain; and a reasonable individual would be unlikely to object to publication.

Appeals and Complaints and Misconduct

Al-Kindi Center for Research and Development journals follow Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines on appeals to journal editor decisions and complaints about a journal’s editorial management of the peer-review process.
Appeals, complaints, or allegations of misconduct will be taken with utmost seriousness, regardless of whether those involved are internal or external to the journal, or whether the submission in question is pre-or post-publication. If an allegation is made to the journal, it must also be passed on to the publisher, who will follow guidelines from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) on how to address the nature of the problem.
Should an individual wish to submit an appeal, complaint or raise an issue of potential misconduct regarding the journal or its content, they should contact that editor in chief and/or the publisher to explain their concerns.
The journal does not tolerate abusive behaviour or correspondence towards its staff, academic editors, authors, or reviewers. Any person engaged with the journal who resorts to abusive behaviour or correspondence will have their contribution immediately withdrawn and future engagement with the journal will be at the discretion of the editor and/or publisher.

Open Access Policy

Al-Kindi Center for Research and Development (KCRD) firmly believes in research publications that can be immediately accessed by scholars, policymakers, students, and the general public, in a matter of seconds. All journals under the KCRD are Open Access and free to be downloaded.
The journal is an open-access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.