Language-in-Education Policies in Malawi, Zambia and Rwanda as presented by Williams (2013): A Review

Language Planning, Language Policy, Language-in-Education, Indigenous Languages


October 31, 2021


This paper reviews Williams’ (2013) assessment of the language-in-education policies of three African countries – Malawi, Zambia, and Rwanda. Williams’ (2013) paper, therefore, constitutes the main data of our review paper. The methodology used was descriptive design. Specifically, content analysis was used in reviewing the main sections of Williams’ (2013) paper. The current paper has four sections. These are introduction; language-in-education policies in Malawi, Zambia, and Rwanda; the research design, findings, and conclusion of Williams (2013); and the conclusion. We anticipate that the review would provide useful information for educationists, language planning and policymakers, researchers, and all key stakeholders.

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