GC-MS and LC-MS/MS Analysis of Secondary Metabolites in the Methanolic Extract of Uncaria callophylla Blume ex Korth. Stems
Uncaria callophylla Blume ex Korth. is a wild plant species belonging to the Rubiaceae family. These plants thrive in the peat swamp forest of Kalimantan, Indonesia. The stems of Uncaria callophylla have been used by the Dayak Ngaju tribe to treat various diseases and to restore stamina while they work in the forest. The present study was conducted to identify the secondary metabolites in the methanolic extract of Uncaria callohylla stems to increase the knowledge about this plant and its potential in medicinal applications and drug discovery. The analysis was conducted using GC-MS and LC-MS/MS. GC-MS analysis was performed with the Agilent Technologies 7890 Gas Chromatography equipped with an Auto Sampler and 5975 Mass Selective Detector. The LC-MS analysis was carried out in the C18 column of the Waters Acquity UPLC system. MS analysis was performed with an electrospray ionization source (ESI) in positive and negative ion modes, and the compounds were identified using a UNIFI data processor with a mass spectrum library of natural active substances from the Waters Traditional Medical Scientific Library database based on UPLC/QTof MSE Data Acquisition. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 24 peaks, and nine of them showed quality 90% or higher, namely n-Hexadecanoic acid (16.63%), 1,3,7-Trimethyl-3,7-Dihydro-1H-Purine-2,6-Dione (13.07%), Hexadecanoic Acid, Methyl Ester; 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic Acid, Diethyl Ester; 9,12-Octadecadienoic Acid, Methyl Ester; Methyl 14-Methylheptadecanoate; (9E,12E)-9,12-Octadecadienoic Acid; Z, E-3,13-Octadecadien-1-o1; and 2,6,10,14,18,22-Tetracosahexaene, 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexanethyl-, (all-E)-. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed the presence of five compounds, namely Arecatannin A1, Sweroside_2, Uncarine A, Epianhydrobelachinal, and Betulonic acid. All the secondary metabolites identified from GC-MS and LC-MS/MS analysis have biological activity, which indicates their medicinal potencies. From the result, it can be concluded that Uncaria callophylla stem methanolic extract contains various bioactive compounds justifies its traditional use, and therefore it can be developed further for new drug discovery.