Conversion of Palm Oil (CPO) into Fuel Biogasoline through Thermal Cracking Using a Catalyst Based Na-Bentonite and Limestone of Soil Limestone NTT
Cracking catalytic palm oil (CPO) into hydrocarbon fuel by saponification pretreatment has been carried out with bentonite and limestone-based catalysts. The catalysts used were Na-bentonite and Limestone NTT which were first analyzed using XRF, XRD, and SEM. Saponification pretreatment was carried out on CPO to facilitate the cracking process using a catalyst. The saponification product in the form of a mixture of soap and glycerol was then analyzed by DSC to determine the degradation temperature. Catalytic cracking is carried out in two stages, namely, the first stage hydrocracking at a temperature of 250-350°C using a stainless steel reactor is the source of catalyst Fe / Cr. The resulting distillate was then cracked again using a Na-bentonite catalyst and a TKNTT catalyst. The resulting fuel is a hydrocarbon fuel which is confirmed from the FT-IR results which indicate the presence of long-chain hydrocarbon compounds. This data is also supported by the results of the GC-MS analysis which shows that the fuel fraction produced is mostly biogasoline. Where cracking using a Na-bentonite catalyst produces a biogasoline fraction of 61.36% and a biodiesel fraction of 38.63%, THAT produces a biogasoline fraction of 88.88% and a biodiesel fraction of 11.11%. The characteristics of the hydrocarbon fuels that have been analyzed show that the calorific value of combustion is 6101 cal/g which is determined using a bomb calorimeter, and the cetane index is 62 which is analyzed using CCI. Both types of hydrocarbon fuels have met the physical requirements that must be possessed by biogasoline fuel based on SNI standards.
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