Research Article

Legal Bases and Issues Concerning Gender and Development in the Philippines


  • Jessie D. Manapsal Don Honorio Ventura Technological State University, Bacolor, Pampanga, Philippines


The cry and fight for equality among humans can be seen even during time immemorial. The sex clash between the male and female remains the society's problem wherein the female class is regarded as the weak genus compared to the male species. The females are left to take care of the menial household duties, wherein it is for the taking care of the children, the husband and the family as a whole. The duties of the female class may not be disregarded because they perform one of the most important parts of molding the society for the better future as Agoncillo, 1990, “Women before the coming of the Spaniards enjoyed a unique position in society that their descendants during the Spanish occupation did not enjoy. Customary laws gave them the right to be equal to men, for they could own and inherit property, engage in trade and industry, and succeed in the chieftainship of a barangay without a male heir. Then, too, they have the exclusive right to give names to their children. As a sign of deep respect, the men, when accompanying women, walked behind them”. The historian's note plays an important role in reaping and re-empower the women as acknowledged by no less than the supreme law of the land, which is the 1987 Philippine Constitution. This paper aims to revisit and be reminded about the roles of women in society and how it may even further encourage professional treatment in the workplace and in society; specifically, it will look into: What is the meaning of gender and development? What are the legal bases that support the program of government for gender and development programs? How may the government protect the rights of women? The findings of the study: The government must monitor the implementation of the laws. The government and civil society must collaborate to further promote women’s rights. The government must make sure that the distribution of positions in the government is through merit and fitness. The government must be vigilant for female overseas workers and should see to it that they are not being exploited or their rights are violated by foreign employers. The government should invite the participation of all sectors in the proper observance and implementation of the laws, rules and regulations that promote Gender equality The study presented the legal bases through the available data, primarily government documents. The scope of the research concentrates on the policies affecting the rights and interests of women to compare and analyze through the records and media interviews. A case study is appropriate for this study because researchers have used the case study research method for many years across a variety of disciplines. Social scientists, in particular, have made wide use of this qualitative research method to examine contemporary real-life situations and provide the basis for the application of ideas and extension of methods.

Article information


Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Studies

Volume (Issue)

1 (3)





How to Cite

Manapsal, J. D. (2019). Legal Bases and Issues Concerning Gender and Development in the Philippines. Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Studies, 1(3), 91–105.



Gender, Gender equality, Human rights, Protective custody, Barangay Protection Order, Temporary Protection Order, Permanent Protection Order, Economic Abuse, Physical Abuse, Sexual Violence, Psychological Violence, Gender Mainstreaming, Sexual Harassment, Battered Woman Syndrome, Battery