Lexical Variations in Pakistani English: A Case Study of the Novel Twilight in Delhi

Code-Switching, Language varieties, Pakistani English, Postcolonial Literature, Sociolinguistics factors


  • Maha Sarfraz
    MPhil Scholar, Department of English, GC Women University, Sialkot, Punjab, Pakistan
June 30, 2021


The present study investigates the English language variations due to code-switching between L1 (Urdu) and L2 (English). It shows how language varies from culture to culture, religion to religion, and how these variations make language an independent variety. This research also investigates the role of Urdu language in the formation of Pakistani English.  It is a corpus-based study. Methodology in the study is both qualitative and quantitative. A mixed approach has been employed. As a sample, a famous postcolonial novel “Twilight in Delhi” by Ahmed Ali has been selected. Analysis shows that the Pakistani native language has an effect on its culture on the English language. This research also investigates various sociolinguistics factors. It shows that the phenomenon of “Borrowing” is frequently used in the novel than compounding and hybridization because of the Islamic religion, historical and societal culture. Edibles are transferred from Urdu into English because they do not have their direct equivalents in English. The results also indicate that the usual use of Urdu words into English at the lexical level is property of Pakistani English and makes it an independent variety.