The Concept of Al-Kasb Theory in Islamic Theology: A Critical Analysis from Quranic Perspective
This article discusses the development of the al-Asy'ary method of thought as one of the sects in the Alhusunnah Wal Jama'ah movement, which is a form of rejection of the Mu'tazilah group. The kasb used by al-Asy'ary implies that something arises from the receiver of kasb (al-muktasib) through the created power, and the creator of that power is God himself. Iktisab, on the other hand, is something that happens through the created power, thus making the acquisition or kasb for the person whose action arises with the help of that power. Al-Asy'ary tried to clarify this theory by presenting a division of movement (al-harakah) where every human being has two different types of movement. The first is an involuntary movement that cannot be avoided (al-harakah al idhtirariyyah), which comes from outside human will. The second is voluntary movement (al-hirakah al iradiyyah), which arises based on the efforts made by humans. The core issue of al-Asy'ary's kasb theory is actually found in the first verse mentioned above, namely in QS al-Shaffat/37:96: "Allah is the one who created you and what you do." If we look at the previous verse (munasbat ayat), it relates to the expression of Prophet Ibrahim's (as a sign of his disapproval) towards his people who worshipped the idols they made themselves. Meanwhile, his thought, specifically in the kasb theory, can be seen that humans acquire their actions created by God when they desire to do something.