Correlates of Sports Confidence among High School Athletes

Source of sport confidence, high school, individual, team sport


  • Elijah G. Rintaugu
    Department of Recreation and Sport Management, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya
  • Brian O. Lusaga Teacher, Ngere High School, Kisumu County, Kenya
  • Francis, M. Mwangi Department of Physical Education Exercise and Sport Science, Kenyatta University, Kenya
  • Kevin K. Kipchumba Department of Physical Education Exercise and Sport Science, Kenyatta University, Kenya
April 29, 2023


The purpose of this study was to establish the correlates of sports confidence among high school athletes. The study examined Vealey’s (1986) nine sources of sports confidence in relation to contextual factors of gender, age, playing experience and type of sport. A descriptive survey design was used, and data were collected using Vealey’s Sources of sports confidence questionnaire (SSCQ) from high school athletes (n=175). Results showed that coaches’ leadership was the highest source of sports confidence, followed by mastery and physical and mental preparation, while situational favourableness appeared to be the weakest source of confidence amongst the athletes. There were significant differences in physical self-presentation (t=-2.14, df = 173, p =0.034) in favour of male athletes. Athletes participating in individual sports had superior scores in mastery, while coaches’ leadership was the most important source of sports confidence for athletes in team sports. There were significant differences in coaches’ leadership (t=-3.118, df = 175, p = 0.002) and social support (t= -2.236, df = 175, p = 0.027) in favour of athletes in a team sport. Athletes who did not engage in their current sport while in a primary school rated coaches’ leadership highly, while mastery of the skill was scored highly by athletes who did participate in the sport while in primary school. It is concluded that coaches’ leadership skills, mastery of skill execution and physical or mental preparedness were the major sources of sports confidence. High schools should utilize coaches who can be emulated by the athletes.