Assessment of Drinking Water Quality and the Efficiency of the Two Water Treatment Plants in UP, India

Treatment Plant, Water Quality Index (WQI), Disinfection, Turbidity, Hardness, TSS


  • Sayed Shujahuddin Rasooly
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Takhar University, Afghanistan
  • Mohsin Anwer Department of Civil Engineering, Zakir Husain College of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, India
January 27, 2023


This study presents the analysis of the water quality and efficiency of two water treatment plants (370 MLD Palra Reservoir and 310 MLD Conventional Water Treatment Plant). These facilities are catering the water demand of Agra city, having a population of about 2.5 million people. Results have shown that the canal water in Pahansu at Bulandshahr District from the Ganga River has mainly two physical concerns; turbidity and total suspended solids. Other parameters like TDS (Total Dissolved Solids), Hardness, Alkalinity, ORP (Oxidation Reduction Potential) and E.C (Electrical Conductivity) were also measured, but their concentration met the BIS recommended values for mentioned water quality parameters. During the study, it was found that the average TSS concentration at Palra reservoir is 468 mg/l, and the same is removed by about 50% with the help of the sedimentation process. The initial turbidity level is about 10.55 NTU, whereas, after sedimentation, it is 9.12 NTU. After primary treatment, the raw water is conveyed to the 310 MLD Conventional Water Treatment Plant at Sikandara Agra through an under-gravity pipeline traversing 134kms. The Conventional Water Treatment Plant involves Coagulation, Flocculation, Sedimentation, Filtration and Disinfection Processes. Raw water at the inlet has turbidity and TSS around 16.9 NTU and 187 mg/l, respectively. About 50% turbidity removal and 70% TSS removal occur in the clari-flocculator, and the remaining get removed during the rapid sand filtration process, thus, giving final water free from turbidity and TSS. Other parameters of the treated water, like pH, Alkalinity, Hardness, TDS etc., are well within the prescribed limits.