Antifungal Activity of Aloe Barbadensis and Nigella Sativa: A Review
Aloe vera (Aloe barbadense) is a significant medicinal plant that has been in use throughout the world since ancient times. It is an herb, widely used in Ayurvedic, Unani, Homeopathic and Allopathic medicines for its essential medicinal properties. Aloe vera contains a wide range of vitamins, enzymes, amino acids, proteins, lipids, polysaccharides, lignin, saponin, minerals, sugars, and salicylic acids etc. It is a potent antimicrobial, antifungal, antibacterial and antiviral, etc. Aloe vera has essential antifungal properties against various fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus glaucus, Penicillium notatum, Penicillium digitatum, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Trichophyton violaceum, Colletotrichum coccodes, and Drechslera hawaiensis, etc. Black cumin (Nigella sativa) is another significant medicinal plant. It belongs to Ranunculaceae family and acts as a potent antifungal. Black cumin seeds are rich in alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins, ash, saponins, vitamins, minerals, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, trans- anetole, etc. The main constituents of the essential oils are trans-anethole, γ-terpinene, thymoquinone, thymohydroquinone, di-thymoquinone, thymol, 4-terpineol, carvacrol, tanethol, α-pinene, and sesquiterpene longifolene, etc. Black cumin is effective against several fungal pathogens such as Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Chaetomium globosum, Microsporum canis, Candida albicans, and Candida tropicalis, etc.