Analysis of Groundwater Quality in Ghazni City, Ghazni, Afghanistan
Historical groundwater level and water quality data in Ghazni province poorly were reviewed and compared with the data collected in the past than recently. The results suggest that the groundwater quality and water level have been improved progressively with urban development, land use, climate change, social development and frequent drought events. The main impact of these events include; 1- most of the springs and flumes have dried up; 2- decreased annual atmospheric precipitation; 3- increased serious deterioration of water quality; 4- increased water logging and irregulation salinization; 5-declining of water level in excess of recharge trend; 7- increased evaporation and discharge; 6- marshes dried up in several areas of the Basin, leaving salt crust at the surface. The above impacts have resulted in the replacement of surface water with groundwater resources to support socio-economic development. This, however, is basically not possible because of the low thickness and productivity of the aquifers. We have done very little to advertency water quality deterioration and serious lowering of the groundwater level due to fragmented institutional arrangements and poor formulation of effective water policies, strategies and regulations for integrated groundwater resources management, development, protection and sustainability. Groundwater natural reserves have been depleted, and water quality has deteriorated due to over-exploitation. Overall Afghanistan, Arsenic (total as) contamination are an issue of current drinking water supply systems where users have been using groundwater sources. Arsenic contamination is a major environmental health management concern, especially in Ghazni province in the WASH sector. Increasing human activities and haphazard urbanization have modified the cycle of heavy metal, non-metal and metalloids. The arsenic contaminated groundwater used for drinking can cause an adverse effect on the human health of the study area. The water quality study with 96 samples from drinking water points (DWPs) was carried out in the center of Ghazni province results show that the arsenic concentration values in the study area varied between 0.00-0.99 mg/L and 38% of DWPs samples exceeded the value of the WHO guideline of 0.01 mg/L of As Owever, 62% of analyzed water samples exceeded the National drinking water quality standard (NDWQS) of 0.05 mg/L of As.