Energy Transition in the Context of Electricity Power System and Climate Change Reality: A Macro Evidence from Ghana
Whereas energy transitions have received global energy governance attention over the few decades, it appears research on this important subject is either new or unclear in terms of the direction and the quantum of changes in Ghana. The study was about an analysis of the phenomenon of structural electricity energy transitions in the context of climate change reality in Ghana to inform sustainable energy policy. The study used the desktop research methodology, including retrieving and analyzing secondary qualitative and quantitative materials from various sources. The results show two significant structural changes in Ghana's electricity energy subsector. Firstly, the results show a significant transition from the previous hydro dominant electricity generation to a hydro-solar-thermal mix. However, crude fired thermal plants account for about 69.56%, compared to 43.33% and 0.49% respectively for hydroelectricity and solar plants in 2020. Secondly, the state monopoly of electricity supply structurally and significantly changed into a state-private-partnership supply mix, with approximately 57% of total generation supplied by independent power producers in 2020. Based on the results, the study concludes that electricity transition from a broad perspective of structural changes in the economy's electrical power systems has taken place based on the available data from Ghana. However, a low-carbon energy economy transition in the context of transitioning into climate compatible energy-climate-sustainability nexus has not yet taken place. Therefore, further interdisciplinary studies are imperative to appreciate both theoretically and practically why Ghana's renewable energy policy agenda and the observed strategies of implementations appeared contradictory.