The Influence of Low Temperature on the Immune System of Teleosts
Due to their status as poikilothermic vertebrates, fish can experience changes in water temperature and, consequently, changes in their body temperature as a result of seasonal changes, migration, or the discharge of significant amounts of effluent into a body of water. Shifting the temperature outside of the ideal temperature range for a specific fish species might have detrimental consequences for the animal's physiology, especially its immune system. Therefore, either acute or chronic exposure to inadequate temperatures can weaken an organism's ability to protect itself against infections, putting the animal's general health at risk. Specifically, the progress gained in understanding the effects of suboptimal temperature on the soluble and cellular mediators of the innate and adaptive immune systems of fishes is the subject of this review paper. Cold stress can have a variety of impacts on different fish species, but in general, both acute and chronic suboptimal temperature exposure have suppressive effects on immunity, especially on adaptive immunity. It is vital to understand the effects of environmental temperature on fish species in order to optimize the management of wild species and to implement the best management techniques for aquaculture species.